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Carbohydrates

Aldoses     Ketoses       Oses: aldoses and ketoses      Cyclising oses     Linear D-hexoses → cyclic D-hexoses     Cyclic D-hexoses → L-hexoses correspond to the following example: Names of cyclic oses (exercise)       Haworth formulas of cyclic oses (exercise)   Hexose oxidations       Reduction of Oses           Addition of HCN on aldoses and increase of the chain     Chain reduction of oses using hydroxylamine             Transformation of aldoses into ketoses via phenylhydrazine   Processing ketoses to aldoses at controlled pH Diosides     Dioses: cellobiose, lactose, saccharose      Triosides, example: raffinose      Tetrosides, example: stachyose      Polyosides     Polyoses: cellulose, amylose, amylopectine and glycogen      Heterosides