Search:   

Formation enthalpies

The formation enthalpy of a chemical species is the change of enthalpy of the reaction which produces 1 mole of that species starting with the corresponding usual elementary substances.

 

 

Species $\Delta H_f$
$kJ$
$25^oC$
$1\; bar$
Aluminium Al(s) 0
Al(g) 326.4
Al3+(g) 5483.17
Al3+(aq) -531
Al2O3(s) -1675,7
AlCl3(s) -704.2
Antinomy Sb(s) 0
SbH3(g) 145.11
Arsenic As(s) 0
AsH3(g) 66.44
Barium Ba(s) 0
Ba2+(aq) -537.64
BaO(s) -553.5
BaCl2(s) -858.6
Bromine Br2(l) 0
Br2(g) 30.907
Br(g) 111,88
Br -(g) 219.07
Br -(aq) -121.55
HBr(g) -36.40
Cadmium Cd(s) 0
Cd(g) 112.01
Cd2+(aq) -75,90
CdO(s) -258.2
CdCO3(s) -750.6
Cesium Cs(s) 0
Cs(g) 76.06
Cs+(aq) -258.28
Calcium Ca(s) 0
Ca(g) 178.2
Ca2+(aq) -542.83
CaO(s) -635.09
CaCO3(s) calcite -1128.8
CaCO3(s) aragonite -1127.8
CaF2(s) -1167.3
CaCl2(s) -748.1
CaBr2(s) -682.8
CaSO4(s) -1433
Ca3(PO4)2(s) -4126
Carbon C(s) 0
C(g) 716.68
CO(g) -110.53
CO2(g) -393.51
CO2(aq) -413.80
H2CO3(aq) -699.65
HCO3 -(aq) -691.99
CO3 2-(aq) -677.14
CCl4(l) -135.44
CS2(l) -89.70
HCN (g) 135.1
HCN (l) 108.87
CN -(aq) 150.6
CH4(g) methane -75
C2H2(g) ethyne 226.73
C2H4(g) ethene 52.26
C2H6(g) ethane -84.68
C3H6(g) propene 20.42
C3H6(g) cyclopropane 53.30
C3H8(g)propane -103.85
C4H10(g) butane -126.15
C5H12(g) pentane -146.44
C5H12(l) pentane -46.44
C6H6(g) benzene 82.93
C6H6(l) benzene 49.0
C6H12(l)cyclohexane -156
C6H14(l)hexane -156
C7H16(g) heptane -224.4
C8H18(l) octane -249.9
CH3OH(l) methanol -238.66
CH3OH(g) methanol -200.66
C2H5OH(l) ethanol -277.69
C2H5OH(g) ethanol -235.10
C6H5OH(s) phenol -165.0
HCHO(g) methanal -108v57
CH3CHO(l) ethanal -192.30
CH3CHO(g) ethanal -166.19
CH3COCH3(l) propanone -248.1
HCOOH(l) methanoic acid -424.72
CH3COOH(l) ethanoic acid -484.5
CH3COOH(aq) ethanoic acid -485.76
CH3COO -(aq) ethanoate -486.01
HOOCCOOH (s) ethanedioic acid -827.2
C6H5COOH(s) benzoic acid -385.1
CH3CH(OH)COOH(s) lactic acid -694.0
CH3COOC2H5 ethyl ethanoate -479.0
Chlorine Cl2(g) 0
Cl(g) 121.68
Cl -(g) -233.13
HCl(g) -92.31
HCl(aq) -167.16
Chromium Cr(s) 0
Cr(g) 396.6
CrO4 2-(aq) -881.15
Cr2O7 2-(aq) -1490.3
Copper Cu(s) 0
Cu(g) 338.32
Cu+(aq) -71.67
Cu2+(aq) 64.77
Cu2O(s) -168.6
CuO(s) -157.3
CuSO4(s) -771.36
CuSO4·H2O(s) -1085.8
CuSO4·5H2O(s) -2279.7
Fluorine F2(g) 0
F(g) 78.99
F -(aq) -332.63
HF(g) -271.1
Hydrogen H2(g) 0
H(g) 217.97
H+(aq) 0
H2O(g) -241.82
H2O(l) -285.83
H2O2(l) -187.78
Gold Au(s) 0
Au(g) 366.1
Iodine I2(s) 0
I2(g) 62.44
I(g) 106.84
I -(aq) -55.19
HI(g) 26.48
Iron Fe(s) 0
Fe(g) 416.3
Fe2+(aq) -89.1
Fe3+(aq) -48.5
Fe2O3(s) -824.2
Fe3O4(s) -1118.4
FeS(s) -100.0
FeS2(s) -178.2
Lead Pb(s) 0
Pb(g) 195.0
Pb2+(aq) -1.7
PbO(s) -218.99
PbO2(s) -277.4
Lithium Li(s) 0
Li(g) 159.37
Li+(aq) -278.49
Magnesium Mg(s) 0
Mg(g) 113.10
Mg2+(aq) -466.85
MgO(s) -601,70
MgCO3(s) -1095.8
MgCl2(s) -641.32
Mg(OH)2(s) -925
Mercury Hg(l) 0
Hg(g) 61.32
Hg2+(aq) 171.1
Hg22+(s) 172.4
HgO(s) -90.83
Hg2Cl2(s) -265.22
HgCl2(s) -224.3
HgS(s) -53.6
Nitrogen N2(g) 0
N(g) 472.70
NO(g) 90.25
N2O(g) 82.05
NO2(g) 33.18
N2O4(g) 9.16
N2O5(s) -43.1
N2O5(g) 11.3
HNO3(l) -174.10
HNO3(aq) -207.36
NO3 -(aq) -205.0
NH3(g) -46.11
NH3(aq) -80.29
NH4 +(aq) -132.51
NH2OH(s) -114.2
HN3(l) 264.0
HN3(g) 294.1
N2H4(l) 50.63
NH4NO3(s) -365.56
NH4Cl(s) -314.43
NF3(g) -113
Oxygen O2(g) 0
O(g) 249.17
O3(g) 142.7
OH -(aq) -229.99
Phosphorus P4(s) 0
P(g) 314.64
P4(g) 58.91
PH3(g) 5.4
PCl3(g) -287.0
PCl3(l) -319.7
PCl5(g) -374.9
PCl5(s) -443.5
H3PO3(s) -964.4
H3PO3(aq) -964.8
H3PO4(s) -1279.0
H3PO4(l) -1266.9
H3PO4(aq) -1277.4
PO4 3-(aq) -1279.0
P4O10(s) -2984.0
Potassium K(s) 0
K(g) 89.24
K+(g) 514.26
K+(aq) -252.38
KOH(s) -424.76
KF(s) -567.27
KCl(s) -436.75
KBr(s) -393.80
KI(s) -327.90
Silicium Si(s) 0
Si(g) 455.6
SiO2(s) -910.94
SiCl4(l) -687
Silver Ag(s) 0
Ag(g) 284.55
Ag+(aq) 105.58
AgBr(s) -100.37
AgCl(s) -127.07
Ag2O(s) -31.05
AgNO3(s) -124.39
Sodium Na(s) 0
Na(g) 107.32
Na+(aq) -240.12
NaOH(s) -425.61
NaCl(s) -411.15
NaBr(s) -361.06
NaI(s) -287.78
Sulfur S8(s) 0
S(g) 278.81
S2(g) 128.37
S 2-(aq) 33.1
SO2(g) -296.83
SO3(g) -395.72
H2SO4(l) -813.99
H2SO4(aq) -909.27
SO4 2-(aq) -909.27
HSO4 -(aq) -887.34
H2S(g) -20.63
H2S(aq) -39.7
HS -(aq) -17.6
SF6(g) -1209
Tin Sn(s) 0
Sn(g) 302.1
Sn2+(aq) -8.8
SnO(s) -285.8
SnO2(s) -580.7
Zinc Zn(s) 0
Zn(g) 130.73
Zn2+(aq) -153.89
ZnO(s) -348.28

From: P.W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, fourth edition, Oxford University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-19-855283-1